ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Characterization and Identification of Poliovirus from the Environment in Indonesia 2015

Bambang Heriyanto, Nike Susanti, Vivi Setiawaty

Bambang Heriyanto
Center for Research and Development of Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia

Nike Susanti
Center for Research and Development of Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia

Vivi Setiawaty
Center for Research and Development of Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Jakarta, Indonesia. Email: [email protected]
Online First: October 03, 2018 | Cite this Article
Heriyanto, B., Susanti, N., Setiawaty, V. 2018. Characterization and Identification of Poliovirus from the Environment in Indonesia 2015. Bali Medical Journal 7(3). DOI:10.15562/bmj.v7i3.963


Background: Poliomyelitis is a disease caused by the poliovirus which causes abnormalities in the nervous system, commonly affects children and can be prevented by immunization. Since March 27th, 2014, Indonesia has been declared to be free of polio and anticipate the mutation of poliovirus type 2 (vaccine-derived polioviruses / VDPV). Indonesia will change the use of policy vaccines from triOPV to biOPV by erasing the P2 type before switching from OPV to IPV. Before the policy was implemented, it is needed to have research to determine the level of immunity of children against poliovirus and type of poliovirus which circulate in the area of OPV and IPV in Indonesia.

Methods: The research study was conducted in five cities in five provinces in Indonesia in 2015. The serum was taken on 100 children between 12-59 months and feces were taken towards 150 children in the same age range. The examination of antibody titers in serum performed using the method of neutralization.

Result: Research shows that in regions that apply OPV as routine immunization, about 94.5% of children had antibodies against poliovirus type 1, 96.8% against type 2 and 93.3% of type 3. In areas which implement IPV as routine immunization, children have gained 85% immunity against poliovirus type 1, 92% against type 2 and 93% of type 3. In the environments that implement OPV, poliovirus was found in feces specimens (0.5%) or the mixed waste (58%). All the circulating virus is a virus originated from Sabin vaccine which mostly comes from type 2 (85% of mixed waste and 60% of feces).

 

Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that sabin polio virus is still circulating in the area which applies OPV as routine immunization and poliovirus type 2 is commonly found there. Immunity inflicted on children varies in each region. Children living in a regular immunization using OPV and IPV had immunity for about 85-90%. 

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