Background: Coronary heart disease is often caused by atherosclerosis. This disease is one of the most common causes of death in the world, especially in developing countries. Atherosclerosis is caused by an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein, VCAM and ICAM and various enzymes such as COX-2 and matrix metalloproteinase. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanin-containing Balinese purple sweet potato ethanolic extract (PSPEE) on aortic VAM expression in high-cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. Methods: This study was an experimental laboratory study with randomized control group design post-test only design using 16 local Balinese rabbits aged 4-5 months obtained from The Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University. Results: It was found that the mean VCAM expression in the first (control) group was higher than that of the second (treatment) group (63.3750 versus 6.1250, respectively). Thus, there was a significant decrease in aortic VCAM expression due to the administration of PSPEE (p <0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that the anthocyanin-containing ethanolic extract of purple sweet potato tubers inhibits atherosclerosis via the inhibition of aortic VCAM expression.