The incidence of kidney stone disease has been rising in past decades. The prevalence has doubled in both genders, and
the prevalence ratio is shrinking from 3.4 to 1.3 between males and females. This condition greatly impacts individuals, the
health care system, and socioeconomic levels. Kidney stone diseases are related to various risk factors and medical conditions.
A detailed diagnosis through history taking, urinalysis, metabolic evaluation, and stone analysis is important to direct the
therapy approach. The therapy in managing kidney stone diseases comprises dietary and pharmacological treatment. In
addition to general advice on sufficient fluid intake, citrate intake, maintaining ideal body weight, and restricting sodium and
animal protein, the therapy should be adjusted based on the specific type of stones.