Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Bacteriuria in pregnancy in Sanglah Hospital: a descriptive study

Abstract

Introduction: Bacteriuria in pregnancy is quite common, with the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria occurring in about 2-5% of pregnancies, acute cystitis occurring in 1.3% of pregnancies and acute pyelonephritis occurring in about 3%. If not treated properly, asymptomatic bacteriuria can increase the risk of pyelonephritis and the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients with bacteriuria in pregnant women at Sanglah Hospital. Acknowledging the characteristics of patients with bacteriuria may help the screening process establish an early diagnosis and management.

Methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive study carried out at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar from January 2018 to January 2020. Pregnant women diagnosed with bacteriuria in pregnancy from January 2018 to January 2020 at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar who had met the inclusion criteria and did not meet the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Data regarding the patient’s age, gestational age when bacteriuria was diagnosed, UTI complaints, bacterial urine levels, and culture results were collected for each subject.

Results: Based on the results of this study, it was found that the prevalence of positive bacteriuria from January 2018 to 2020 was 0.89%. Most of the pregnant women diagnosed with bacteriuria were aged 20-35 years (77.1%), had gestational age of 0 - 28 weeks (64.9%), were multigravida (52.7%), and had high school education level (50.8%). The majority of pregnant women who experience bacteriuria were included in the group of asymptomatic bacteriuria (64.9%). The urinalysis results on pregnant women with bacteriuria showed that most of the pregnant women (45.6%) had +1 bacteria levels, followed by +2 and +3 bacteria levels, namely 28% and 26.4%, respectively.

Conclusion: Bacteriuria in pregnancy is still a problem that is often encountered in daily practice

References

  1. McCormick T, Ashe RG, Kearney PM. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;10(3):156–62. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1576/toag.10.3.156.27418
  2. Azkia HP. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy. J Agormed Unila. 2015;2(4):433–439.
  3. Amalia MR, Oka AAG. Parity and Gestational Age Associated with Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) in Pregnant Women at Sanglah Hospital for the Period January 2014 to December 2014. E-Jurnal Medika Udayana. 2018;7(7):1-7.
  4. Michelim L, Bosi GR, Comparsi E. Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy: Review of Clinical Management. J Clin Nephrol Res. 2016;3(1):1030-38.
  5. Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska J, Małyszko J, Wieliczko M. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Arch Med Sci. 2015/03/14. 2015;11(1):67–77. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25861291
  6. Rahiman F, Balasubramnian T, Shejina M, and Musambil M. A Review on Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy. International Journal of Pharma Research & Review. 2015;4(2):1-7.
  7. Wingert A, Pillay J, Sebastianski M, Gates M, Featherstone R, Shave K, et al. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: systematic reviews of screening and treatment effectiveness and patient preferences. BMJ Open. 2019;9(3):e021347–e021347. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30872538
  8. Wabe YA, Reda DY, Abreham ET, Gobene DB, Ali MM. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria, Associated Factors and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Among Pregnant Women Attending Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020;16:923–32. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33061397
  9. Mary Bose A, PK S. Microbiological Profile of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy. Crit Care Obstet Gynecol. 2016;02(05). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.21767/2471-9803.100034
  10. Greve VH, Greve T, Helmig RB. Bacteriuria in Pregnancy in a Danish Contemporary Cohort of Women. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2020;2020:8398537. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32395068
  11. Tchente Nguefack C, Okalla Ebongue C, Nouwe Chokotheu C, Ebong Ewougo C, Nana Njamen T, Mboudou E. Clinical presentation, risk factors and pathogens involved in bacteriuria of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of 3 hospitals in a developing country: a cross sectional analytic study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2019;19(1):143. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31035943
  12. Abdel-Aziz Elzayat M, Barnett-Vanes A, Dabour MFE, Cheng F. Prevalence of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study at two tertiary centres in Cairo, Egypt. BMJ Open. 2017;7(3):e013198–e013198. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28325856
  13. Moore A, Doull M, Grad R, Groulx S, Pottie K, Tonelli M, et al. Recommendations on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. CMAJ. 2018;190(27):E823–30. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29986858
  14. Farazi A, Jabbariasl M. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in the central region of Iran: Frequency, risk factors, and causative organisms. Clin Epidemiol Glob Heal. 2019;7(3):309–12. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2018.09.009
  15. Emiru T, Beyene G, Tsegaye W, Melaku S. Associated risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2013;6:292. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23885968
  16. Fakhrizal E. Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy: Prevalence and Factors Affecting It. J Ilmu Kedokt. 2018;11(1):19. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.26891/jik.v11i1.2017.19-24
  17. Ranjan A, Sridhar STK, Matta N, Chokkakula S, Ansari RK. Prevalence of UTI among Pregnant Women and Its Complications in Newborns. Indian J Pharm Pract. 2017;10(1):45–9. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/ijopp.10.1.10
  18. Chandel LR, Kanga A, Thakur K, Mokta KK, Sood A, Chauhan S. Prevalence of pregnancy-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria: a study done in a tertiary care hospital. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2012/04/14. 2012;62(5):511–4. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24082549
  19. Loh K, Sivalingam N. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Malays Fam Physician. 2007;2(2):54-7. PMID: 25606081; PMCID: PMC4170332.
  20. Alfred AO, Matie O, Gbenga SA, Chiedozie I, Martin DU. Diagnostic Characteristics of Urine Microscopy in Detecting Asymptomatic Bacteriuria of Pregnancy Using Urine Culture as Gold Standard. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2014;13(1):87–90. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/0853-13168790
  21. Tadesse S, Kahsay T, Adhanom G, Kahsu G, Legese H, G/Wahid A, et al. Prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Adigrat General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):740. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30340646
  22. Umar N, Kulsum SN, Ali L. Spectrum of Urinary Tract Infections in Pregnant Women. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2013;6(2):349–53. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bpj/424
  23. Simerville JA, Maxted WC, Pahira JJ. Urinalysis: a comprehensive review. Am Fam Physician. 2005 Mar 15;71(6):1153-62. Erratum in: Am Fam Physician. 2006;74(7):1096. PMID: 15791892.
  24. Shruthi A, Beena, Mamatha. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a tertiary care hospital, Bengaluru. Int J Health Sci Res. 2015; 5(2):157-162
  25. Rogozińska E, Formina S, Zamora J, Mignini L, Khan KS. Accuracy of Onsite Tests to Detect Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128(3):495–503. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/aog.0000000000001597
  26. Chu CM, Lowder JL. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections across age groups. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;219(1):40–51. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2017.12.231

How to Cite

Megadhana, I. W., Pradnyandita, D. G. S., Mahayasa, P. D., & Wijaya Surya, I. G. N. H. (2022). Bacteriuria in pregnancy in Sanglah Hospital: a descriptive study. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 423–428. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v11i1.3155

HTML
0

Total
0

Share

Search Panel

I Wayan Megadhana
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Dewa Gede Sidan Pradnyandita
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


Putu Doster Mahayasa
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal


I Gusti Ngurah Harry Wijaya Surya
Google Scholar
Pubmed
BMJ Journal