Aim: The goal of this study was to compare maternal and neonatal results in diabetic pregnant ladies who were treated either insulin and metformin or insulin only.
Methods: 220 pregnant diabetic women with type 1, 2 or gestational diabetes were randomisely assigned into two groups .each group is 110 pregnant diabetic women. One group takes insulin and metformin treatment to achieve glycemic targets and other take insulin only treatment. Pregnancy results in 110 ladies who stayed solely on insulin have been compared to pregnancy results in 110 pregnant diabetic ladies treated with insulin and metformin who were matching for age, weight, as well as ethnicity.
Results: No significant variations in maternal risk factors existed at the start of the study. Group II from enrolling to term, they gained significantly more weight (5.90 vs. 4.39 kg; P < 0.000). When it came to gestational hypertension, there was no significant difference between groups I and II (14.5 against 19.1%, P = 0.367), pre-eclampsia (7.27 vs. 9.09%, P = 0.622),insulin dosage was decreased in group I statistically significant (mean 39.5±16.5 vs. 55.4±17.5 units, P= 0.000), vaginal delivery (41.8 vs. 47.3%, P = 0.416) or rate of elective Caesarean section (39.1 vs. 32.7%, P = 0.325), rate of emergency caesarean section (19.1 vs. 20%, P=0.865), perinatal loss (4 cases in group II vs. 3 cases in group I;P=0.701). Group I had a lower rate of neonatal morbidity; prematurity (16.63 vs. 24.55%, P = 0.417), neonatal hypoglycemia (7.3 vs. 24.5 %, P= 0.000), respiratory distress (13.64 vs. 30 %, P= 0.003), neonatal jaundice (13.6 vs. 33.6%, P < 0.000) and admittance to the newborn intensive care unit (24.55 vs. 35.45%, P = 0.077). Macrosomia occurrence (There was a significant difference in birth weight centiles > 90 [group I (16.4%) vs. group II (29.1%); P = 0.024]. The incidence of polyhydramnios was significantly different [group I (13.6%) vs. group II (32.7%); P = 0.001].Shoulder dystocia [group ? (2.7%) vs. group II (4.5%); P=0.721].
Conclusions: Diabetic pregnant women who were treated with insulin plus metformin who had equal baseline risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes gained less weight and needed less insulin to maintain glycemic control. Furthermore improved neonatal outcomes as macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress and special care baby admission compared with those treated with insulin alone.