Introduction: Malaria is still one of the major health problems, specifically due to drug resistance in Plasmodium, which encourages extensive research to find effective alternatives. One of the new antimalarial compounds is chalcone-derivative compound (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxy phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one. However, its potency is still needed to be evaluated. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the efficacy and identify the pharmacological mechanism of this chalcone-derivative.Â
Methods: An experiment using post-test only with control group design was conducted from May 2016 to July 2017 in the laboratory of Parasitology and Clinical Pathology Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Swiss mice were used and infected with Plasmodium before being divided into nine groups with different concentrations of (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxy phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one. Histological examination was conducted to count the number of Kupffer cells and the proportion of Kupffer cells that had phagocytosed the Plasmodium.
Results: Both doxycycline and (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxy phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one Â decreased the parasitemia in the tested mice with higher efficacy was observed in the doxycycline group. Likewise, both compounds also increase the number ofÂ Kupffer cells which become phagocytes of erythrocytes containing Plasmodium was higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p 0.000 <0.05). Substance (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxy phenyl) prop-2-en-1-one may act as an antimalarial by phagocytes of erythrocytes containing Plasmodium.
Conclusion In conclusion, the (E)-1-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxy phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one exhibited potent antimalarial activity via the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells. This compound may be developed into a new antimalarial drug.