Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the bacteria that cause otitis media, leading to progressive structural damage of the middle ear mucosa due to virulence factor, toxin, and enzyme produced. The excessive inflammatory process can cause oxidative stress, which will aggravate tissue damage, thus difficult to cure. This study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) in decreasing IL-8 expression and blood MDA level in the otitis media rat model induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 42 SDF Sprague-Dawley rats. They were divided into 6 groups: normal control, negative control: Otitis Media (OM), positive control: OM + Ciprofloxacin 20 mg/kg body weight/day, OM + EEP 200 mg/kg body weight/day, OM + Ciprofloxacin 20 mg/kg body weight/day + EEP 100 mg/kg body weight, OM + Ciprofloxacin 20 mg/kg body weight/day + EEP 200 mg/kg body weight/day. Induction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to obtain the OM model was administered on the first day of the study and waited for 28 days before treatments were given. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23 for Windows.
Results: After 14 days of treatment, the expression of IL-8 and MDA level in each treatment group (OM + Ciprofloxacin, OM + EEP 200, OM + Ciprofloxacin + EEP 100, OM + Ciprofloxacin + EEP 200) revealed significant decrease compared to OM (negative control group) (p<0.05). The reduction of IL-8 expression between the Ciprofloxacin group and EEP 200 was not significantly different (p>0.05). There was a significant difference between the Ciprofloxacin group and Ciprofloxacin + EEP 100, and between Ciprofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin + EEP 200 (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Ethanol extract of propolis decreased IL-8 expression and MDA level in the OM rat model induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.