ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Acute toxicity profile and Sun Protection Factor (SPF) nanoemulgel combination of C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate, C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octabenzoate, and quercetin in vitro and in vivo

Agung Wiwiek Indrayani , I Made Jawi, I Gusti Ayu Artini, Ni Wayan Sucindra, Suwaldi Martodihardjo, Sunardi Radiono, Jumina Jumina, I Gusti Made Ngurah Budiana, Dewa Ayu Arimurni, Made Dwi Pradipta Wahyudi, Lutfi Chabib, Mustofa Mustofa

Agung Wiwiek Indrayani
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Email: [email protected]

I Made Jawi
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

I Gusti Ayu Artini
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Ni Wayan Sucindra
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Suwaldi Martodihardjo
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Sunardi Radiono
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Jumina Jumina
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

I Gusti Made Ngurah Budiana
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia

Dewa Ayu Arimurni
School of Pharmacy Mahaganesha, Renon, Denpasar, Indonesia

Made Dwi Pradipta Wahyudi
School of Pharmacy Mahaganesha, Renon, Denpasar, Indonesia

Lutfi Chabib
Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Mustofa Mustofa
Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Online First: April 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Indrayani, A., Jawi, I., Artini, I., Sucindra, N., Martodihardjo, S., Radiono, S., Jumina, J., Budiana, I., Arimurni, D., Wahyudi, M., Chabib, L., Mustofa, M. 2020. Acute toxicity profile and Sun Protection Factor (SPF) nanoemulgel combination of C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate, C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octabenzoate, and quercetin in vitro and in vivo. Bali Medical Journal 9(1): 246-252. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v9i1.1658


Background: The ageing process (photoaging) can be caused by sun exposure, especially ultraviolet light. Organic and inorganic sunscreen products are commercially available. Two calixarene organic compounds, namely C-phenylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octacinnamate and C-methylcalix[4]resorcinaryl octabenzoate, have been successfully synthesized. Besides, the antioxidant quercetin can be potentially combined with these two compounds since ultraviolet rays also cause reactive oxygen species. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity profile in vitro by cell line Vero and to develop the optimal activity of the product in New Zealand rabbit skin.

Methods: Optimal formulation of three formulas nanoemulgel of sunscreen was using  D Optimal Mixture Design. Acute cytotoxicity test in vitro by culture cell line Vero was using randomized post-test only control group design. The activity of the product was measured by the value of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) in vivo using randomized post-test only control group design. Data of acute toxicity in vitro test (IC50 value) was analyzed using probit analysis and activity sun protection factor was analyzed using one-way ANOVA on SPSS version 20 for Windows. 

Results: The in-vitro toxicity test of formula 1, 2, 3 nanoemulgel were 2,940.569 µg/mL, 13,489.728 µg/mL, and 6,289.248 µg/mL respectively. The formula 1 nanoemulgel sunscreen products were produced with the three highest SPF values. SPF in vivo test showed that the nanoemulgel protection capability of the formula 1 with three different doses were 34; 36; dan 43 respectively. 

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the nanoemulgel sunscreen products were successfully formulated with high in vivo SPF value and can be potentially developed as organic sunscreens in the future because it is not toxic in culture cell.

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