Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the six most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recent reports have suggested an increasing prevalence of HCC without evidence of hepatitis B and C infection (non-viral HCC).
Methods: This was a descriptive study with cross-sectional approach that aimed to describe the distribution of viral and non-viral risk causes of hepatocellular carcinoma cases at Arifin Achmad General Hospital (AAGH), Riau Province in the period of 2013-2017. Data were obtained from medical records of HCC patients using total sampling method.
Results: We included 129 cases of whom 64 (49,6%) were associated with viral causes and 65 (50,4%) wereÂ non-viral HCC. Bivariate analyses showed that there was no age difference between viral and non-viral HCC patients but the prevalence of non-viral HCC was significantly higher in females than males (odds ratio [OR], 3,12 ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1,2-8,1; p=0,016). In addition, patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <400 ng/mL were more frequently associated with non-viral HCC compared with those with elevated AFP Â³400 ng/mL (OR, 3,71; 95%CI, 1,49-9,26; p=0,004).Conclusion: There was an equal distribution of viral and non-viral causes in HCC cases at AAGH, Riau Province during 2013-2017. This suggests changing etiologies of HCC that may impact HCC surveillance.