Background: Traumatic brain injury is one of the primary causes of mortality, morbidity, and economic burden, especially in the young population. Following initial primary injury, there is a secondary insult, resulting in neuro-inflammatory response and free radical generation. These oxidative stress is a powerful precursor of apoptosis. Mangosteen is a powerful natural antioxidant that also has neuroprotective property. This study was conducted to evaluate whether the Mangosteen extract could decrease the expression of MDA and apoptosis in traumatic brain injury.
Method: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three treatments group, i.e., sham-operated control, closed head injury (CHI), and CHI with mangosteen extract (treatment group). In the treatment group, the mangosteen extract was administered once daily every day after CHI for 1, 3, and 7 days. MDA, SOD, AIF, caspase 8, and caspase 9 were evaluated using immunohistochemistry staining while apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL essay.
Result. MDA, AIF, caspase 8, and caspase 9 were up-regulated in CHI group compared to sham-operated group (p<0.05), meanwhile the expression of SOD decreased significantly. MDA, AIF, caspase 8, and caspase 9 were significantly down-regulated in the treatment group compared to CHI group (p<0.05), while significant elevation was observed in SOD expression.
Conclusion. Mangosteen extract decreased neuronal apoptosis in traumatic brain injury by promoting expression of SOD and down-regulating MDA, AIF, caspase 8, and caspase 9.